During The Second World War, the Soviet Union's naval forces faced significant challenges due to the country's lack of development and modernization of its naval power. Despite these obstacles, the Soviet Navy played a crucial role in several operations, including the defence of Leningrad and the delivery of supplies to the Soviet Union from the United States.
In terms of doctrine, the Soviet Navy emphasized the use of submarines for offensive purposes, focusing on disrupting enemy supply lines and defending its immense coastline. This approach was partially due to the Soviet Union's limited access to advanced naval technology, as they lacked the resources to build large surface fleets.
One key example of the Soviet Navy's use of submarines was the defence actions taken during the Siege of Leningrad. The Soviet submarine fleet conducted attacks on German supply ships, effectively disrupting the flow of resources to the German army and aiding in the beleaguered city's defence.
In terms of strategy, the Soviet Navy worked closely with other branches of the military, including the army and air force, to defend the country's coastline. This was particularly notable in regard to the Arctic Convoys, in which the Soviet Navy worked with British and American forces to deliver supplies to the Soviet Union via the northern Arctic route, which was less vulnerable to German attacks than other routes.
Admiral Nikolay Kuznetsov served as the commander-in-chief of the Soviet Navy from 1939 to 1955. Kuznetsov played a significant role in the development and modernization of the Soviet Navy after the war, but during the conflict, he was instrumental in organizing the defence of the Soviet coastline and coordinating with other branches of the military.
Despite their successes, the Soviet Navy faced significant challenges during The Second World War, including a lack of resources and technology, as well as significant losses in the early years of the conflict. However, their efforts to disrupt enemy supply lines and defend their coastline played a crucial role in the ultimate Allied victory.