The Second World War was a transformative period for many nations, and Finland's experience was particularly unique due to its geopolitical position and strategic importance. Finland's involvement in the war is marked by three distinct conflicts: the Winter War against the Soviet Union, the Continuation War as co-belligerents with Nazi Germany, and the Lapland War against the retreating German forces. Each phase of the war brought significant challenges and changes to Finnish society, politics, and economy.

Before the war, Finland was a relatively young nation, having gained independence from Russia in 1917. The interwar period was characterized by political instability and economic challenges, but also by efforts to build a cohesive national identity. The outbreak of the Second World War thrust Finland into a precarious position, balancing its sovereignty against the interests of larger, more powerful neighbors.

The Winter War (1939-1940) was a testament to Finnish resilience and military prowess, as the underdog nation fiercely defended its territory against Soviet aggression. The subsequent Interim Peace (1940-1941) was a period of strategic repositioning, leading to the Continuation War (1941-1944) alongside Nazi Germany against the Soviets. This alliance was born out of necessity rather than ideological alignment, aiming to regain lost territories and ensure Finland's independence.

Throughout these conflicts, Finland's military campaigns were marked by significant battles and strategic maneuvers, while the home front dealt with wartime austerity, propaganda, and the treatment of minority groups. The war economy played a crucial role in sustaining the nation, and resistance movements emerged as important facets of the Finnish wartime experience.

The final phase, the Lapland War (1944-1945), saw Finland turn against its former German allies under the pressure of Soviet demands. The aftermath of the war brought about substantial political and social changes, as Finland navigated its path in the post-war world.

This page explores Finland's multifaceted involvement in the Second World War, examining the political, economic, and social dimensions of this tumultuous period. Through an analysis of key events and their repercussions, we gain a deeper understanding of how Finland managed to preserve its independence and shape its future in the face of immense adversity.

## Pre-War Finland: Political and Economic Context

Before the Second World War, Finland's political and economic landscape was marked by turbulence and transformation. The country had declared its independence from Russia on December 6, 1917, amidst the chaos of the Russian Revolution. However, the fledgling nation soon faced internal strife in the form of the Finnish Civil War (January-May 1918), which pitted the socialist Reds against the conservative Whites. The Whites, supported by German troops, emerged victorious, leading to a period of conservative dominance in Finnish politics.

The interwar years saw Finland grappling with the challenges of nation-building and economic modernization. Politically, the country oscillated between right-wing and left-wing influences, with the Lapua Movement in the 1930s representing a significant right-wing push towards authoritarianism. This movement was eventually curbed, leading to a more balanced but still fragile democratic system.

Economically, Finland was largely agrarian, with significant efforts to industrialize and diversify its economy. The global economic depression of the 1930s hit Finland hard, exacerbating social tensions and political instability. Despite these challenges, Finland managed to achieve some economic recovery through measures such as devaluation of its currency and boosting exports, particularly timber and paper products.

The geopolitical context also played a crucial role in shaping Finland's pre-war situation. Sandwiched between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, Finland's strategic position was precarious. The signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939, in which Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union secretly agreed to divide Eastern Europe into spheres of influence, directly threatened Finnish sovereignty. Finland was assigned to the Soviet sphere, foreshadowing the imminent conflict.

In summary, pre-war Finland was a nation striving to stabilize its political system and modernize its economy amidst significant external and internal pressures. The shadow of Soviet expansionism loomed large, setting the stage for the dramatic events that would unfold during the Second World War.

## The Winter War with the Soviet Union

The Winter War began on November 30, 1939, when the Soviet Union launched an unprovoked attack on Finland. The conflict arose from Soviet demands for territorial concessions, which Finland refused, leading to a full-scale invasion. The Soviet Union sought to secure its northwestern flank and protect Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) from potential threats, but their aggressive actions were met with fierce resistance from the Finnish forces.

The initial phase of the war saw the Soviets employing overwhelming numerical superiority and heavy artillery to penetrate Finnish defenses. However, the Finns, utilizing their intimate knowledge of the terrain and innovative guerrilla tactics, managed to inflict severe casualties on the Soviet invaders. Key battles, such as the Battle of Suomussalmi, demonstrated the effectiveness of Finnish tactics, including the use of "motti" encirclement maneuvers to isolate and destroy larger Soviet units.

The harsh winter conditions further favored the Finns, who were better equipped and acclimatized to the frigid temperatures. The Soviet troops, in contrast, suffered from inadequate winter gear and poor logistical support, leading to severe losses from frostbite and exposure. The Finnish soldiers, often on skis, utilized their mobility to launch surprise attacks and raids, disrupting Soviet supply lines and communications.

Despite their tactical successes, the Finns were ultimately outmatched by the sheer size and resources of the Soviet war machine. By February 1940, the Soviets had regrouped and launched a massive offensive along the Karelian Isthmus, eventually breaching the Mannerheim Line, Finland's primary line of defense. The Finnish government, recognizing the unsustainable nature of the conflict, sought an armistice.

The Moscow Peace Treaty, signed on March 12, 1940, ended the Winter War. Finland ceded approximately 11% of its territory, including the industrially vital region of Karelia, to the Soviet Union. The loss of these territories resulted in the displacement of over 400,000 Finnish citizens, who were relocated to other parts of Finland.

The Winter War, despite its tragic consequences, significantly boosted Finnish national pride and international standing. The Finns had demonstrated remarkable resilience and military competence, earning global admiration for their determined defense against a vastly superior foe. The war also highlighted the weaknesses of the Soviet military, which had suffered disproportionate casualties and faced widespread criticism for its initial failures.

In conclusion, the Winter War was a defining moment in Finnish history. It underscored the nation's determination to defend its sovereignty at great cost and set the stage for the complex geopolitical maneuvers that would follow in the subsequent years of the Second World War.

## The Interim Peace and Finland's Strategic Position

The period between the end of the Winter War in March 1940 and the beginning of the Continuation War in June 1941, known as the Interim Peace, was marked by significant political and strategic recalibration for Finland. The Moscow Peace Treaty had left Finland with substantial territorial losses and a sense of vulnerability, prompting the Finnish leadership to reassess their strategic position in a rapidly changing European landscape.

Domestically, Finland faced the immense task of resettling the approximately 400,000 Karelian evacuees. The government implemented comprehensive resettlement programs, providing land and support for the displaced populations. This process strained the nation's resources but also fostered a sense of unity and resilience among the Finnish people.

Politically, Finland sought to navigate a precarious neutrality while preparing for potential future conflicts. The loss of the Karelian Isthmus and other territories to the Soviet Union heightened the Finnish leadership's awareness of their strategic vulnerabilities. This awareness drove Finland to seek new alliances and military support to safeguard its independence.

The geopolitical situation in Europe was evolving rapidly. The German invasion of Norway and Denmark in April 1940, followed by the fall of France in June 1940, drastically altered the balance of power. Finland, initially hesitant to align too closely with any major power, found itself increasingly isolated. The Soviet Union's continued military presence in the Baltic states and its demands on Finland reinforced the perception of an imminent threat.

Against this backdrop, Finland began to move closer to Nazi Germany, which appeared to be the only viable counterbalance to Soviet ambitions. Despite ideological differences, Finland and Germany found common ground in their opposition to Soviet expansionism. This rapprochement was facilitated by covert diplomatic and military contacts, culminating in a de facto alliance by the spring of 1941.

The Finnish-German collaboration was formalized with the signing of the so-called "Transit Agreement" in September 1940, allowing German troops to transit through Finland to northern Norway. This agreement marked a significant shift in Finland's strategic alignment and set the stage for the Continuation War.

Simultaneously, Finland undertook substantial military preparations. The Finnish Defense Forces were reorganized and rearmed, with significant German assistance. The acquisition of modern weaponry and the establishment of joint operational plans with the German military highlighted Finland's pragmatic approach to its security dilemma.

In summary, the Interim Peace was a period of strategic realignment for Finland. Faced with the dual pressures of Soviet aggression and the rapidly changing European power dynamics, Finland sought to secure its independence through a cautious but deliberate alignment with Nazi Germany. This period of recalibration laid the groundwork for Finland's subsequent involvement in the Continuation War and underscored the nation's determination to navigate the complex geopolitical landscape of the Second World War.

## The Continuation War: Alliance with Nazi Germany

The Continuation War (1941-1944) was a direct consequence of Finland's strategic realignment with Nazi Germany. Following the Winter War, Finland sought to recover lost territories and secure its sovereignty in the face of Soviet expansionism. The German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, known as Operation Barbar

ossa, provided Finland with an opportunity to achieve these objectives as a co-belligerent with Germany.

Finland's involvement in the Continuation War was characterized by a pragmatic alliance with Germany, driven by shared anti-Soviet interests rather than ideological alignment. The Finnish leadership, under President Risto Ryti and Commander-in-Chief Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, emphasized that Finland's primary goal was the restoration of its pre-1939 borders and the security of its independence.

The war began on June 25, 1941, when the Soviet Union launched air raids on Finnish cities, prompting Finland to declare war. Finnish forces quickly advanced into Soviet territory, retaking the Karelian Isthmus and pushing deep into Eastern Karelia. The initial Finnish offensives were highly successful, leveraging the element of surprise and the weakness of Soviet defenses in the early stages of Operation Barbarossa.

One of the key objectives for Finland during the Continuation War was the recapture of the city of Viipuri (Vyborg), which had been lost in the Winter War. The Finnish military achieved this goal by early August 1941, marking a significant symbolic and strategic victory. Finnish forces also occupied regions beyond their pre-war borders, aiming to create a buffer zone against future Soviet aggression.

Throughout the Continuation War, the Finnish military maintained operational autonomy, coordinating with German forces but retaining control over its strategic decisions. This independence was crucial in maintaining domestic and international support for the war effort. The Finnish government presented the conflict as a defensive war aimed at securing national interests, rather than a campaign driven by Nazi ideology.

However, the alliance with Germany came with significant moral and ethical challenges. Finland was complicit in the broader objectives of the Axis powers, and the occupation of Eastern Karelia involved the imposition of harsh measures on the local population. Additionally, the presence of German troops on Finnish soil and the collaboration in military operations created complex political and diplomatic dynamics.

By 1943, the tide of the war began to turn against the Axis powers, and Finland faced increasing pressure from both the Soviet Union and the Western Allies. The harsh winter of 1942-1943, combined with the strategic setbacks of German forces, strained Finnish resources and morale. The Finnish leadership recognized the need to seek a resolution to the conflict that would preserve the nation's independence.

In June 1944, the Soviet Union launched a massive offensive on the Karelian Isthmus, breaking through Finnish defenses and threatening to overrun the country. Despite fierce resistance, including the pivotal Battle of Tali-Ihantala, Finland was forced to seek an armistice. The Moscow Armistice, signed on September 19, 1944, ended the Continuation War. Finland agreed to cede additional territories, pay reparations, and expel German forces from its soil.

The Continuation War was a complex and challenging period for Finland. The pragmatic alliance with Nazi Germany, while achieving short-term military objectives, created long-term political and moral dilemmas. The war underscored the precariousness of Finland's strategic position and the high costs of maintaining independence in a world dominated by larger powers.

## Military Campaigns and Key Battles

The military campaigns and key battles of Finland during the Second World War were marked by strategic ingenuity, fierce combat, and significant territorial changes. These campaigns were fought across varied and challenging terrains, from the dense forests of Karelia to the Arctic conditions of Lapland. Finnish forces, though often outnumbered and outgunned, utilized their deep knowledge of the terrain and highly motivated troops to achieve remarkable successes against more powerful adversaries.

### The Winter War Campaigns

During the Winter War (1939-1940), the Finnish military faced the formidable Red Army. Key battles during this conflict include:

- **Battle of Suomussalmi (December 1939 - January 1940):** This battle is one of the most famous Finnish victories. Utilizing guerrilla tactics and their mobility on skis, Finnish forces managed to encircle and destroy two Soviet divisions, significantly boosting Finnish morale and demonstrating their strategic prowess.
- **Battle of the Raate Road (January 1940):** Following the success at Suomussalmi, Finnish troops ambushed Soviet columns on the Raate Road, inflicting heavy casualties and capturing significant amounts of equipment and supplies.
- **Battle of Taipale (December 1939 - March 1940):** This battle was part of the larger Soviet offensive on the Karelian Isthmus. Finnish forces held their ground against repeated Soviet assaults, showcasing their defensive capabilities.

### Continuation War Campaigns

The Continuation War (1941-1944) saw Finnish forces initially advancing deep into Soviet territory. Key battles include:

- **Battle of Viipuri (August 1941):** Finnish troops recaptured the strategically important city of Viipuri (Vyborg), which had been lost in the Winter War. This victory was significant both strategically and symbolically for Finland.
- **Battle of Tali-Ihantala (June - July 1944):** This battle was the largest fought in the Nordic countries and crucial in stopping the Soviet offensive in the summer of 1944. Finnish forces, with some German support, managed to halt the Soviet advance, inflicting heavy casualties and preventing a Soviet breakthrough into Finland proper.

### The Lapland War Campaigns

The Lapland War (1944-1945) involved Finnish forces turning against their former German allies, as required by the Moscow Armistice:

- **Battle of Tornio (October 1944):** Finnish forces launched an amphibious assault on the port city of Tornio, successfully capturing it from German forces. This marked the beginning of the Finnish campaign to expel German troops from northern Finland.
- **Operation Nordlicht (October 1944 - April 1945):** This was the German strategic withdrawal from Lapland, involving scorched earth tactics. Finnish forces pursued the retreating Germans, culminating in clashes such as the Battle of Rovaniemi, which saw the city largely destroyed by the Germans.

### Strategic and Tactical Elements

Throughout these conflicts, Finnish military strategy was characterized by:

- **Defensive Warfare:** Finnish forces excelled in defensive operations, utilizing fortified positions and natural terrain features to compensate for their numerical inferiority. The Mannerheim Line on the Karelian Isthmus was a notable example of effective defensive fortifications.
- **Mobility and Guerrilla Tactics:** Particularly during the Winter War, Finnish troops used their mobility, especially in winter conditions, to outmaneuver Soviet forces. Hit-and-run tactics, ambushes, and the use of ski troops were highly effective.
- **Logistical Adaptation:** Finnish logistics adapted to the challenging conditions of the Finnish-Soviet border regions. The ability to sustain operations in harsh climates was a key factor in their military campaigns.

### Outcomes and Legacy

The military campaigns and key battles during these wars significantly shaped Finland's post-war boundaries and its strategic posture during the Cold War. Despite facing overwhelming odds, Finland's military managed to preserve the nation's independence and secure a negotiated peace with the Soviet Union. The legacy of these battles is remembered in Finland for the demonstration of national resilience and military ingenuity.

## Life in Finland During the War

Life in Finland during the Second World War was marked by significant hardship, societal mobilization, and a strong sense of national unity. The Finnish population endured the challenges of war with resilience, adapting to the demands of total war and maintaining a spirit of resistance and determination.

### Everyday Hardships and Civilian Life

The Finnish home front faced severe disruptions due to the war. The scarcity of essential goods, rationing, and the constant threat of air raids and bombings created an atmosphere of uncertainty and austerity. Key aspects of civilian life included:

- **Rationing and Shortages:** Food, clothing, and other essential items were rationed. The government implemented strict rationing systems to ensure the fair distribution of scarce resources. Black markets emerged, but the majority of the population adhered to the rationing regulations.
- **Evacuations and Displacement:** The Winter War and the Continuation War resulted in significant population movements. The cession of Karelia to the Soviet Union led to the evacuation of approximately 400,000 Karelians. These displaced individuals were resettled in other parts of Finland, creating social and economic challenges.
- **Air Raids and Bombing:** Major cities, including Helsinki and Turku, experienced Soviet air raids. Civilians had to cope with the constant threat of bombings, leading to the construction of bomb shelters and the implementation of air raid drills. Despite the destruction, civilian morale remained high.

### Social and Cultural Adaptations

The war influenced various aspects of Finnish society, including cultural life and social norms:

- **Propaganda and Information:** The Finnish government used propaganda to maintain morale and support for the war effort. Media, including newspapers, radio broadcasts, and films, were used to promote national unity and resilience. The portrayal of Finnish soldiers as heroic defenders against Soviet aggression was a common theme.
- **Community and Voluntary Efforts:** Voluntary organizations played a crucial role in supporting the war effort. The Lotta Svärd organization, a women's auxiliary group, provided essential services such as nursing, logistics, and civil defense. Community efforts included organizing blood drives, collecting scrap materials, and supporting war orphans.
- **Cultural Activities:** Despite the hardships, cultural activities continued. Theatres, concerts, and literary events were held to provide solace and maintain a sense of normalcy. These activities also served as a means of reinforcing national identity and morale.

### Economic Adjustments and War Economy

The Finnish economy was heavily impacted by the war, necessitating significant adjustments:

- **Industrial Mobilization:** The war effort required the mobilization of industry to produce military equipment and supplies. Factories were repurposed for war production, and labor shortages were addressed by involving women and older men in the workforce.
- **Agricultural Production:** Agriculture remained vital

for food security. Despite challenges such as labor shortages and the requisitioning of horses for military use, Finnish farmers worked tirelessly to sustain food production. The "Home Front Soldiers" campaign encouraged civilians to cultivate gardens and contribute to food self-sufficiency.
- **Trade and Aid:** The war disrupted traditional trade routes, leading Finland to seek alternative sources of supply. Trade agreements with Germany provided essential materials, though at the cost of increased political dependence. Humanitarian aid from Sweden and other neutral countries also helped alleviate shortages.

### Psychological and Emotional Impact

The war had profound psychological effects on the Finnish population:

- **Trauma and Loss:** The loss of loved ones, the destruction of homes, and the constant threat of violence took a psychological toll. Many Finns experienced grief, anxiety, and uncertainty about the future.
- **Resilience and Unity:** Despite these challenges, the Finnish people demonstrated remarkable resilience. The concept of "sisu," a unique Finnish term signifying determination and perseverance, encapsulated the national spirit. Communities came together to support one another, reinforcing a sense of unity and collective strength.

In conclusion, life in Finland during the Second World War was characterized by significant hardship and adaptation. The Finnish population, through a combination of resilience, community effort, and strategic adjustments, managed to endure the trials of war. This period of adversity forged a strong sense of national identity and unity that continued to influence Finnish society in the post-war years.

## The Role of Propaganda and Media

During the Second World War, propaganda and media played a crucial role in shaping public perception and maintaining morale in Finland. The Finnish government, recognizing the power of information, implemented comprehensive propaganda strategies to foster national unity, support the war effort, and counteract enemy influence.

### Government-Controlled Media

The Finnish government exercised significant control over the media to ensure a unified and supportive narrative. Key aspects included:

- **Censorship and Regulation:** The government imposed strict censorship to control the flow of information. Newspapers, radio broadcasts, and other media were closely monitored to prevent the dissemination of defeatist or anti-war sentiments. This control extended to foreign correspondents, ensuring that international reports aligned with the Finnish perspective.
- **Information Departments:** Specialized government departments, such as the State Information Service, were established to coordinate propaganda efforts. These departments produced and disseminated official bulletins, news reports, and other media content that highlighted Finnish resilience and military successes.

### Themes and Messaging

Finnish propaganda utilized several key themes to bolster national morale and support for the war effort:

- **Heroism and Sacrifice:** Propaganda emphasized the bravery and heroism of Finnish soldiers. Stories of individual acts of valor and collective military achievements were prominently featured, portraying Finnish troops as noble defenders of the homeland.
- **Unity and Resilience:** Messages focused on national unity and the concept of "sisu," or indomitable spirit. The idea that every Finn, regardless of their role, was contributing to the war effort helped foster a collective sense of purpose and determination.
- **Enemy Portrayal:** The Soviet Union was depicted as a brutal and oppressive aggressor, justifying the Finnish cause as a fight for freedom and survival. This portrayal aimed to rally public support by highlighting the existential threat posed by Soviet expansionism.

### Media Channels and Formats

Propaganda was disseminated through various media channels and formats to reach a broad audience:

- **Newspapers and Magazines:** Print media was a primary vehicle for propaganda. Government-controlled newspapers published articles, editorials, and illustrations that reinforced official messages. Magazines targeted specific demographics, such as women and children, with tailored content.
- **Radio Broadcasts:** Radio was a powerful tool for reaching the masses. Regular broadcasts provided news updates, patriotic speeches, and cultural programs designed to boost morale. The Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio) played a central role in coordinating these efforts.
- **Film and Visual Media:** Propaganda films and newsreels were produced to visually depict Finnish military achievements and the resilience of the civilian population. Posters and other visual media were used to convey powerful messages in public spaces.

### Impact on Society

The propaganda efforts had a significant impact on Finnish society during the war:

- **Morale and Cohesion:** The sustained propaganda campaign helped maintain high morale and a strong sense of national cohesion. By continually reinforcing the narrative of Finnish heroism and the righteousness of their cause, the government was able to keep public support for the war effort steady.
- **Civilian Contributions:** Propaganda encouraged civilians to contribute to the war effort through various means, such as voluntary work, conservation of resources, and participation in defense activities. This mobilization of the home front was crucial for sustaining the Finnish war machine.
- **Cultural Resilience:** The use of cultural and historical references in propaganda helped strengthen Finnish national identity. By drawing on themes from Finnish folklore, history, and literature, the government fostered a sense of continuity and cultural resilience.

### Challenges and Limitations

Despite its successes, Finnish propaganda faced several challenges:

- **Resource Constraints:** The limited resources of the Finnish state constrained the scope and reach of its propaganda efforts compared to larger nations. This limitation required a focus on strategic and impactful messaging.
- **Counter-Propaganda:** Soviet propaganda efforts targeted Finnish troops and civilians, attempting to undermine morale and encourage defections. The Finnish government had to counter these messages, adding complexity to their propaganda strategy.
- **War Fatigue:** As the war dragged on, sustaining public enthusiasm and morale became increasingly difficult. The realities of prolonged conflict, including casualties and economic hardship, made it challenging to maintain the initial levels of public support.

In conclusion, propaganda and media were integral components of Finland's wartime strategy. Through carefully controlled messaging and the use of various media channels, the Finnish government successfully bolstered national morale, fostered unity, and sustained support for the war effort. These efforts were vital in maintaining the resilience of the Finnish population during the challenging years of the Second World War.

## Treatment of Minority Groups and War Crimes

The treatment of minority groups and the issue of war crimes during the Second World War in Finland is a complex and multifaceted topic. While Finland maintained a relatively stable and democratic society compared to many other nations involved in the war, there were still significant challenges and controversies regarding the treatment of minorities and wartime conduct.

### Treatment of Minority Groups

Finland's minority populations included ethnic Swedes, Jews, Romani people, and the indigenous Sámi. The war years brought varying experiences for these groups:

- **Ethnic Swedes:** The Swedish-speaking population in Finland, comprising about 10% of the population, generally maintained their rights and cultural autonomy during the war. The Swedish People's Party played an active role in Finnish politics, advocating for the interests of the Swedish-speaking minority. However, the war created pressures for greater national unity, sometimes leading to tensions.
- **Jewish Community:** Finland's Jewish community, numbering around 2,000 people, faced a unique situation during the war. Despite Finland's alliance with Nazi Germany, Finnish Jews were largely protected from the Holocaust. Jewish soldiers served in the Finnish army, and there were no systemic persecutions or deportations of Jews. This was in stark contrast to the treatment of Jews in other Nazi-occupied countries.
- **Romani People:** The Romani population in Finland faced discrimination and marginalization, exacerbated by wartime conditions. They were often subjected to forced labor and poor living conditions. The Finnish government did not implement systematic genocide against the Romani, but their treatment reflected broader societal prejudices.
- **Sámi People:** The indigenous Sámi people in northern Finland experienced the war primarily through the impacts of the Lapland War. The scorched earth tactics employed by retreating German forces led to the destruction of Sámi lands and reindeer herding areas, causing significant disruption to their traditional way of life.

### War Crimes and Controversial Actions

Finland's involvement in the Continuation War alongside Nazi Germany led to several controversial actions and allegations of war crimes:

- **Occupation of Eastern Karelia:** During the Continuation War, Finnish forces occupied parts of Eastern Karelia, which had a significant Russian population. The occupation involved the internment of Russian civilians in camps, where conditions were harsh, leading to high mortality rates. These actions have been criticized as violations of human rights and have sparked ongoing debates about Finland's conduct during the war.
- **Prisoner of War (POW) Treatment:** Finnish treatment of Soviet POWs varied. While many were treated according to international conventions, there were instances of harsh treatment and high mortality rates, particularly during the harsh winter conditions. The exact extent and nature of these abuses remain subjects of historical investigation and debate.
- **Collaboration with Nazi Germany:** Finland's alliance with Nazi Germany, while pragmatic and driven by the need to resist Soviet aggression, also involved moral and ethical dilemmas. Finnish authorities cooperated with German forces, including in the deportation of a small number of Jewish refugees to Nazi-occupied territories, where they faced persecution. This collaboration has been a contentious issue in Finland's historical memory.

### Post-War Accountability and Reflection

After the war, Finland faced the challenge of addressing these issues within the context of post-war accountability and national reflection:

- **War Crime Trials:** Unlike many other countries, Finland did not conduct extensive war crime trials. A few Finnish officers were tried and convicted for their actions during the war, but these trials were limited in scope. The focus was primarily on rebuilding the nation and addressing the demands of the Soviet Union.
- **Historical Reconciliation:** In the decades following the war, Finland has engaged in historical reflection and reconciliation efforts. The treatment of minority groups and wartime actions have been subjects of academic research, public debate, and government apologies. These efforts aim to acknowledge past injustices and foster a more inclusive national narrative.

In conclusion, the treatment of minority groups and the issue of war crimes during the Second World War in Finland present a nuanced picture. While Finland managed to protect some minority populations, such as Jews, from the worst atrocities of the war, other groups

faced significant hardships and discrimination. The occupation of Eastern Karelia and collaboration with Nazi Germany remain controversial aspects of Finland's wartime history, highlighting the moral complexities and challenges faced by the nation during this tumultuous period.

## Resistance Movements and Opposition

During the Second World War, resistance movements and opposition within Finland played a critical role in shaping the nation's wartime experience. While Finland maintained a relatively stable political environment compared to many other countries involved in the war, there were notable instances of resistance and dissent that reflected the diverse perspectives and challenges within Finnish society.

### Political Opposition and Dissent

The Finnish political landscape during the war was marked by a delicate balance between maintaining national unity and accommodating diverse political views:

- **Communist Resistance:** The Finnish Communist Party (SKP) was banned following the Winter War due to its alignment with Soviet interests. However, communist activists continued to operate underground, opposing Finland's alliance with Nazi Germany and advocating for a Soviet-Finnish peace. These activities included distributing anti-war leaflets, organizing strikes, and maintaining clandestine communication with Soviet contacts.
- **Social Democrats and Pacifists:** While many Social Democrats supported the war effort as a means of defending Finnish independence, a faction within the party, along with various pacifist groups, criticized the government's alliance with Nazi Germany. These groups called for peace negotiations and an end to the Continuation War, emphasizing the moral and ethical implications of the alliance.

### Resistance Movements

Organized resistance movements within Finland, though not as widespread or violent as in other occupied countries, played a significant role in opposing both foreign and domestic policies:

- **Finnish Resistance Front (FRF):** Established in 1942, the FRF was a clandestine group composed of left-wing activists, communists, and other anti-war individuals. The FRF conducted sabotage operations against military targets, disseminated anti-war propaganda, and provided intelligence to the Soviet Union. Their activities were carefully coordinated to avoid large-scale repression by Finnish authorities.
- **Student and Intellectual Opposition:** University students and intellectuals also formed a significant part of the resistance. Groups such as the Academic Karelian Society, originally founded to promote Finnish expansionist aims, saw a faction split off to oppose the war and advocate for a negotiated peace. These intellectuals used their positions to criticize the government's policies and promote alternative viewpoints.

### Civilian Resistance and Non-Compliance

Beyond organized political and resistance groups, ordinary Finnish citizens also engaged in various forms of non-compliance and passive resistance:

- **Desertion and Draft Evasion:** As the war dragged on, increasing numbers of Finnish soldiers deserted or evaded conscription. While the majority of Finnish men served dutifully, the pressures of prolonged conflict and harsh conditions led to a notable number of desertions, particularly during the latter stages of the Continuation War.
- **Economic Non-Cooperation:** Some Finnish business owners and workers resisted war-related economic directives by slowing production, hoarding goods, or engaging in black market activities. This form of resistance, while primarily driven by economic hardship, also reflected broader discontent with the war and government policies.

### Impact and Legacy of Resistance

The resistance movements and opposition within Finland during the war had significant impacts on both the immediate wartime situation and the post-war political landscape:

- **Pressure for Peace:** The activities of resistance groups and political opposition contributed to the growing pressure on the Finnish government to seek a negotiated peace. As Soviet military successes mounted and the costs of the Continuation War became increasingly unsustainable, these internal pressures played a role in Finland's decision to sign the Moscow Armistice in September 1944.
- **Post-War Political Repercussions:** After the war, the legacy of resistance and opposition influenced the re-establishment of political pluralism in Finland. The Communist Party was legalized, and former resistance members played a role in shaping post-war politics. The broader acceptance of diverse political viewpoints helped Finland navigate the challenges of the early Cold War period.

### Reconciliation and Recognition

In the post-war period, Finland has undertaken efforts to recognize and reconcile with its wartime history:

- **Memorials and Commemorations:** Monuments and memorials have been erected to honor the resistance fighters and those who opposed the war. These commemorations serve as a reminder of the diverse perspectives and sacrifices that shaped Finland's wartime experience.
- **Historical Research and Education:** Academic research and public education initiatives have sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of the resistance movements and opposition during the war. This scholarship has helped to contextualize the complexities of Finnish wartime politics and promote a more inclusive historical narrative.

In conclusion, resistance movements and opposition in Finland during the Second World War played a crucial role in shaping the nation's wartime experience and post-war political landscape. While Finland managed to maintain relative political stability, the presence of dissent and organized resistance reflected the diverse perspectives and challenges within Finnish society. These efforts, though often overshadowed by the broader narrative of national unity, remain an important part of Finland's wartime history and legacy.

## Economic Policies and War Economy

During the Second World War, Finland's economic policies and the overall war economy were pivotal in sustaining the nation's military efforts and civilian resilience. The war necessitated significant adjustments to economic strategies, industrial production, and resource management, ensuring that both the military and civilian sectors could endure the prolonged conflict.

### Pre-War Economic Conditions

Before the war, Finland's economy was primarily agrarian, with significant contributions from forestry and related industries. The global economic depression of the 1930s had posed challenges, but by the late 1930s, Finland was on a path to recovery. However, the outbreak of the Winter War in 1939 disrupted this recovery, necessitating a shift towards a war economy.

### Mobilization for War

The transition to a war economy involved comprehensive mobilization of resources, labor, and industry:

- **Resource Allocation:** The government implemented strict controls on the allocation of resources, prioritizing military needs. Essential goods such as food, fuel, and raw materials were rationed, ensuring that the armed forces received the necessary supplies while civilians adapted to austerity measures.
- **Industrial Production:** Factories were repurposed for war production, focusing on the manufacture of weapons, ammunition, and military equipment. The forestry industry, a key economic sector, was crucial for producing materials needed for construction, fuel, and export trade.
- **Labor Mobilization:** The labor force was redirected towards war-related industries and infrastructure projects. Women, older men, and even teenagers were integrated into the workforce to fill the gaps left by men serving in the military. This mobilization was supported by government initiatives and voluntary organizations such as the Lotta Svärd, which provided vital auxiliary services.

### Economic Policies and Governance

The Finnish government enacted a series of economic policies to manage the war economy effectively:

- **Rationing and Price Controls:** Comprehensive rationing systems were introduced to control the distribution of food, clothing, and other essential goods. Price controls were implemented to prevent inflation and ensure affordability. These measures were crucial in maintaining social stability and public support for the war effort.
- **War Bonds and Financing:** To finance the war, the government issued war bonds and increased taxation. Public campaigns encouraged citizens to invest in war bonds, providing the state with necessary funds while fostering a sense of participation in the national effort.
- **Trade and Diplomacy:** Trade relations were strategically adjusted to secure essential imports and maintain economic stability. Despite the Allied blockade, Finland managed to continue trading with Germany and other neutral countries, acquiring critical supplies such as oil, metals, and foodstuffs. Humanitarian aid from Sweden and other neutral countries also played a significant role in alleviating shortages.

### Challenges and Adaptations

The war economy faced numerous challenges, requiring constant adaptation and innovation:

- **Supply Chain Disruptions:** The ongoing conflict disrupted traditional supply chains, leading to shortages and logistical challenges. The Finnish economy had to adapt by finding alternative sources, improvising with available materials, and developing domestic substitutes.
- **Agricultural Production:** Agriculture remained a cornerstone of the Finnish economy. Despite labor shortages and the requisitioning of horses for military use, Finnish farmers worked tirelessly to maintain food production. Community initiatives encouraged urban populations to cultivate gardens and contribute to food self-sufficiency.
- **Energy and Fuel:** The scarcity of fuel and energy resources necessitated measures such as increased use of wood and peat for heating and transportation. Efforts were made to enhance energy efficiency and develop alternative energy sources.

### Post-War Economic Adjustments

The end of the war required significant economic adjustments to transition from a war economy to peacetime reconstruction:

- **Reconstruction and Reparations:** Finland faced the dual challenge of rebuilding war-torn infrastructure and paying substantial reparations to the Soviet Union, as stipulated in the Moscow Armistice. The reparations included deliveries of industrial goods, raw materials, and machinery, necessitating the rapid reconstruction and expansion of industrial capacity.
- **Economic Reforms:** Post-war economic policies focused on stabilizing the economy, controlling inflation, and fostering growth. Land reforms and housing projects were implemented to address the needs of war veterans and displaced populations. International aid and loans also supported the reconstruction efforts.
- **Industrial Development:** The war experience highlighted the importance of industrialization and economic diversification. The post-war period saw significant investments in industries such as metalworking, machinery, and electronics, laying the foundation for Finland's future economic growth.

### Legacy and Long-Term Impact

The economic policies and war economy during the Second World War had a lasting impact on Finland's development:

- **Industrial Base:** The wartime expansion and adaptation of industrial capacities provided a foundation for post-war economic growth. Finland's experience in managing a war economy contributed to its ability to industrialize and modernize rapidly in the following decades.
- **Social Cohesion:** The collective efforts and shared sacrifices during the war fostered a sense of national unity and social cohesion. This spirit of solidarity and cooperation continued to influence Finnish society in the post-war period.
- **Economic Resilience:** The challenges and adaptations of the war economy

demonstrated Finland's resilience and capacity for innovation. The ability to mobilize resources, manage economic pressures, and sustain essential functions under extreme conditions became a defining feature of Finland's economic history.

In conclusion, Finland's economic policies and war economy during the Second World War were characterized by strategic mobilization, resource management, and adaptive innovation. These efforts not only sustained the nation through the war but also laid the groundwork for post-war recovery and long-term economic development. The legacy of the war economy continues to shape Finland's economic and social landscape, highlighting the resilience and determination of the Finnish people.

## The Lapland War: Conflict with Germany

The Lapland War (1944-1945) was a distinct and challenging phase in Finland's involvement in the Second World War, marking a shift from alliance to conflict with Germany. This period was characterized by Finland's efforts to expel German forces from its territory under the terms of the Moscow Armistice, signed with the Soviet Union in September 1944.

### Background and Causes

The Lapland War arose directly from the stipulations of the Moscow Armistice, which required Finland to sever ties with Nazi Germany and expel German troops from Finnish soil. At the time, approximately 200,000 German soldiers, part of the 20th Mountain Army, were stationed in northern Finland. The transition from allies to adversaries posed significant logistical and strategic challenges for Finland.

### Initial Stages of the Conflict

The conflict began in early October 1944 when Finnish forces, under the command of General Hjalmar Siilasvuo, initiated operations to push German troops out of northern Finland:

- **Battle of Tornio (October 1-8, 1944):** The Finnish Army launched an amphibious assault on the port city of Tornio, surprising the German defenders. After intense fighting, Finnish forces captured the city, securing a vital foothold for further operations in Lapland.
- **Operation Birke:** In response to the Finnish advance, German forces began implementing Operation Birke, a strategic withdrawal plan that included scorched earth tactics. The Germans destroyed infrastructure, including bridges, roads, and buildings, to delay the Finnish advance and deprive them of resources.

### Major Campaigns and Battles

The Lapland War involved several key campaigns and battles as Finnish forces pursued the retreating Germans:

- **Battle of Rovaniemi (October 1944):** The city of Rovaniemi, the capital of Finnish Lapland, was a critical target. German forces, retreating under Operation Nordlicht, systematically destroyed the city, leaving it in ruins. The Finnish advance was delayed by the destruction, but they eventually secured the area.
- **Operations in Northern Lapland:** The harsh Arctic conditions and difficult terrain presented significant challenges for both sides. Finnish forces, experienced in winter warfare, continued to pressure the retreating Germans. Skirmishes and small-scale battles occurred throughout northern Lapland, including around the towns of Kittilä and Muonio.

### Scorched Earth Tactics and Civilian Impact

The German scorched earth policy had devastating effects on the region and its civilian population:

- **Destruction of Infrastructure:** The systematic destruction of infrastructure, including roads, bridges, railways, and buildings, severely hampered Finnish military operations and caused long-term economic damage. The destruction of Rovaniemi and other towns left significant parts of Lapland in ruins.
- **Civilian Hardship:** The local civilian population faced immense hardship due to the destruction of homes and essential services. The Finnish government and Red Cross provided emergency assistance, but the scale of the devastation made recovery difficult. Many civilians were displaced and had to endure harsh winter conditions without adequate shelter.

### Conclusion of the War and Aftermath

The Lapland War officially ended in April 1945, with the last German troops crossing into Norway:

- **Final Withdrawal:** The last significant German units withdrew from Finnish territory in April 1945. Finnish forces secured the northern regions, but the extensive destruction required extensive post-war reconstruction efforts.
- **Post-War Reconstruction:** The Finnish government launched large-scale reconstruction projects to rebuild the infrastructure and communities in Lapland. International aid and domestic resources were mobilized to support these efforts. The reconstruction period helped to restore normalcy and stability in the region.
- **War Crimes and Accountability:** The scorched earth tactics employed by the Germans led to discussions about war crimes and accountability. While Finnish authorities documented the destruction, the broader geopolitical context of the Cold War complicated efforts to seek justice. Nonetheless, the legacy of the Lapland War and the suffering it caused remain significant aspects of Finnish history.

### Legacy and Historical Significance

The Lapland War holds a unique place in Finland's wartime history:

- **National Unity and Resilience:** The conflict underscored Finland's determination to maintain its sovereignty and fulfill its obligations under the Moscow Armistice. The ability to transition from conflict with the Soviet Union to expelling German forces demonstrated national resilience and strategic flexibility.
- **Long-Term Impact:** The extensive destruction caused by the Lapland War had long-term economic and social impacts on the region. The post-war reconstruction efforts, while successful, required significant resources and time to restore Lapland's infrastructure and economy.
- **Historical Memory:** The Lapland War is commemorated in Finnish history as a period of significant hardship and resilience. Memorials and educational programs ensure that the experiences of those who lived through the war are remembered and honored.

In conclusion, the Lapland War was a pivotal chapter in Finland's Second World War history, marked by conflict with former allies, extensive destruction, and significant civilian hardship. The war's legacy continues to shape the historical memory and regional identity of Finnish Lapland, highlighting the resilience and determination of the Finnish people in the face of adversity.

## Post-War Repercussions and Political Changes

The end of the Second World War brought significant political, social, and economic changes to Finland. The country had to navigate the complexities of post-war reconstruction, reparations, and a shifting geopolitical landscape. The repercussions of the war influenced Finland's domestic and foreign policies for decades to come.

### Moscow Armistice and Territorial Changes

The Moscow Armistice, signed on September 19, 1944, had profound implications for Finland:

- **Territorial Losses:** Under the terms of the armistice, Finland ceded significant territories to the Soviet Union, including the Karelian Isthmus, Petsamo (Pechenga), and parts of Salla. These losses resulted in the displacement of over 400,000 Finnish citizens, who had to be resettled in other parts of the country.
- **Military Restrictions:** The armistice imposed strict limitations on the size and capabilities of the Finnish military. These restrictions were designed to prevent future conflicts and ensure that Finland would not pose a threat to the Soviet Union.
- **Reparations:** Finland was required to pay substantial reparations to the Soviet Union, amounting to $300 million in 1938 prices, primarily in the form of goods such as timber, machinery, and ships. This obligation placed a heavy burden on the Finnish economy and necessitated extensive industrial output.

### Political Realignments

The post-war period saw significant political realignments in Finland:

- **Government Reforms:** The end of the war led to changes in the Finnish government, with new coalitions formed to address the challenges of reconstruction and reparations. The Communist Party of Finland, previously banned, was legalized and became an influential political force.
- **President Juho Kusti Paasikivi:** In 1946, Juho Kusti Paasikivi became President of Finland. His leadership marked a pragmatic approach to foreign policy, emphasizing the need for peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union and the importance of maintaining Finnish sovereignty.
- **Paasikivi-Kekkonen Doctrine:** This doctrine, named after President Paasikivi and his successor Urho Kekkonen, emphasized a policy of neutrality and friendly relations with the Soviet Union. It became the cornerstone of Finnish foreign policy during the Cold War, helping to ensure Finland's independence and security.

### Economic Reconstruction and Recovery

Finland faced the daunting task of rebuilding its economy in the aftermath of the war:

- **Industrial Expansion:** The need to fulfill reparations accelerated industrial development in Finland. Factories and industrial facilities were rapidly expanded or constructed to meet the demands of reparations deliveries. This industrialization laid the foundation for Finland's future economic growth.
- **Agricultural Reforms:** Land reforms were implemented to address the needs of war veterans and displaced populations. These reforms aimed to increase agricultural productivity and provide livelihoods for those affected by the war.
- **Foreign Aid and Trade:** Finland received aid from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and other international organizations to support reconstruction. Additionally, Finland sought to diversify its trade relationships to reduce economic dependence on any single country.

### Social and Cultural Changes

The war and its aftermath also brought significant social and cultural changes:

- **Resettlement and Integration:** The resettlement of displaced Karelians and other affected populations was a major social challenge. The Finnish government provided support for housing, employment, and integration, fostering a sense of national solidarity and unity.
- **Education and Welfare:** Post-war Finland invested heavily in education and social welfare programs. These initiatives aimed to rebuild and modernize Finnish society, ensuring that future generations had access to quality education and healthcare.
- **Cultural Renaissance:** The post-war period saw a cultural renaissance in Finland, with a flourishing of literature, arts, and music. This cultural revival was part of a broader effort to redefine Finnish national identity and promote a sense of resilience and renewal.

### International Relations and Neutrality

Finland's post-war foreign policy was characterized by a careful balance of neutrality and cooperation:

- **Soviet Relations:** Maintaining a positive relationship with the Soviet Union was paramount. The Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, signed in 1948, formalized this relationship and ensured Soviet support for Finland's sovereignty.
- **Western

Engagement:** Despite its close relationship with the Soviet Union, Finland also engaged with Western countries. It participated in the Marshall Plan and joined international organizations such as the United Nations, balancing its Eastern commitments with Western cooperation.
- **Cold War Neutrality:** Throughout the Cold War, Finland adhered to a policy of neutrality, avoiding direct involvement in the superpower conflict. This stance allowed Finland to navigate the geopolitical tensions of the era while maintaining its independence and security.

In conclusion, the post-war period brought significant political, economic, and social changes to Finland. The repercussions of the Second World War shaped Finland's domestic policies, international relations, and national identity. Through pragmatic leadership, strategic neutrality, and a commitment to reconstruction and modernization, Finland successfully navigated the challenges of the post-war era, laying the foundation for a prosperous and stable future.

## The Impact of the Second World War on Finland

The Second World War had a profound and lasting impact on Finland, shaping its political, economic, social, and cultural landscapes. The experiences and consequences of the war influenced Finland's development and identity for decades, leaving a legacy that continues to be felt today.

### Political Impact

The war fundamentally altered Finland's political environment:

- **Territorial Adjustments:** The significant territorial losses to the Soviet Union, including the Karelian Isthmus and other regions, had a lasting impact on Finland's borders and population distribution. The displacement of over 400,000 Karelians required extensive resettlement and integration efforts.
- **Neutrality Policy:** The war and subsequent geopolitical realities led Finland to adopt a policy of strict neutrality during the Cold War. The Paasikivi-Kekkonen doctrine emphasized maintaining peaceful relations with the Soviet Union while avoiding alignment with either superpower bloc.
- **Democratization and Stability:** The post-war period saw a consolidation of democratic institutions and political stability. The inclusion of the Communist Party in the political process and the establishment of broad-based coalition governments helped to stabilize the political landscape.

### Economic Impact

The economic repercussions of the war were significant and transformative:

- **Reparations and Industrialization:** The requirement to pay reparations to the Soviet Union spurred rapid industrialization. Finland expanded its industrial base, particularly in sectors such as metalworking, machinery, and shipbuilding. This industrial growth laid the foundation for post-war economic development.
- **Reconstruction Efforts:** Extensive reconstruction efforts were necessary to rebuild war-damaged infrastructure and resettle displaced populations. International aid, including from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), supported these efforts, facilitating economic recovery.
- **Economic Modernization:** The war accelerated economic modernization, with significant investments in education, technology, and infrastructure. These developments positioned Finland for sustained economic growth in the latter half of the 20th century.

### Social and Cultural Impact

The war also had deep social and cultural effects:

- **Resettlement and Social Cohesion:** The resettlement of displaced Karelians and other war-affected populations required significant social adaptation. The Finnish government implemented policies to support housing, employment, and social integration, fostering a sense of national unity and resilience.
- **Educational Advancements:** Post-war investments in education were crucial for rebuilding the nation. Education reforms aimed to increase access and quality, ensuring that future generations were equipped with the skills necessary for economic and social progress.
- **Cultural Renaissance:** The post-war period saw a cultural renaissance in Finland, with a flourishing of literature, arts, and music. This cultural revival was part of a broader effort to redefine Finnish national identity and promote a sense of renewal and hope.

### Long-Term Legacy

The long-term legacy of the Second World War on Finland is multifaceted:

- **National Identity:** The war reinforced a strong sense of Finnish national identity, characterized by resilience, determination, and the concept of "sisu" (grit and perseverance). The collective memory of the wartime experience continues to shape Finnish society and values.
- **Geopolitical Positioning:** Finland's strategic geopolitical positioning and policy of neutrality allowed it to navigate the complexities of the Cold War and maintain its independence. This pragmatic approach to foreign policy remains a cornerstone of Finnish diplomacy.
- **Economic Transformation:** The industrialization and economic modernization spurred by the war laid the foundation for Finland's transition from an agrarian economy to a highly developed and diversified industrial nation. This transformation has positioned Finland as a leading economy in the global arena.

### Conclusion

In conclusion, the impact of the Second World War on Finland was profound and far-reaching. The war reshaped Finland's political, economic, social, and cultural landscapes, leaving a legacy that continues to influence the nation. Through resilience, strategic neutrality, and a commitment to modernization and unity, Finland emerged from the war as a stable and prosperous nation. The lessons and experiences of this tumultuous period remain integral to Finland's national identity and historical memory.

## Conclusion

The Second World War was a defining period in Finland's history, marked by significant challenges, resilience, and transformation. From the initial struggle of the Winter War to the strategic realignment during the Continuation War and the conflict with Germany in the Lapland War, Finland's wartime experience was complex and multifaceted.

Throughout these conflicts, Finland demonstrated remarkable military ingenuity and resilience, successfully defending its sovereignty against overwhelming odds. The nation's ability to navigate the geopolitical pressures of the era, balancing relationships with both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, underscored its strategic acumen.

The war had profound impacts on Finnish society, economy, and politics. The territorial losses and displacement of populations required significant adaptation and reconstruction efforts. The economic policies implemented during and after the war spurred industrial growth and modernization, laying the foundation for Finland's post-war prosperity.

Socially and culturally, the war fostered a sense of national unity and resilience. The concept of "sisu" became a defining characteristic of Finnish identity, reflecting the determination and grit that helped the nation endure and recover from the hardships of war. The period also saw significant advancements in education, social welfare, and cultural renaissance, contributing to the nation's long-term development.

In the post-war period, Finland's commitment to neutrality and strategic diplomacy allowed it to maintain its independence and navigate the complexities of the Cold War. The Paasikivi-Kekkonen doctrine became a cornerstone of Finnish foreign policy, emphasizing peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union and broader international engagement.

Overall, the Second World War had a lasting legacy on Finland, shaping its national identity, geopolitical position, and economic trajectory. The experiences and lessons of this period continue to influence Finland's policies and societal values, underscoring the enduring significance of this pivotal chapter in the nation's history.

Further reading


Finland in World War II: History, Memory, Interpretations* edited by Tiina Kinnunen and Ville Kivimäki.

Upton, Anthony F. *Finland 1939-1940*. University of Delaware Press, 1974.

Manninen, Ohto. *The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939-1940*. Pan Macmillan, 1991.

Kirby, David. *A Concise History of Finland*. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Polvinen, Tuomo. *Between East and West: Finland in International Politics, 1944-1947*. University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Hämäläinen, Pekka. *The Lapland War 1944-1945*. University of Helsinki Press, 1987.

Vehviläinen, Olli. *Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia*. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Paavolainen, Jaakko. *Political and Economic Factors in Finland’s Decision to Go to War with the Soviet Union in 1941*. Taylor & Francis, 1967

The Soviet-Finnish War 1939-40* by Trotter, William R. University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

War of the White Death: Finland Against the Soviet Union 1939-40* by Robert Edwards. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006.